The hottest problems in environmental protection l

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Problems in Indian environmental protection legislation and feasible solutions

in the implementation of environmental protection policies in Europe, it is very noteworthy that some laws and regulations are sometimes enforced by the government. For example, in France, local laws and regulations are enforced by special personnel. However, there are great differences between European laws and regulations and their implementation

it is precisely because of such differences that people in some countries have "chemical fear" or "psychological fear" of some dangerous goods, such as the fear of PVC in Germany, the fear of phthalates in Denmark, and people's rejection of NVP in UV ink. On the one hand, this may be the result of the wanton publicity of some catastrophic events by the media

on the other hand, the behavior of people in some countries or regions has also contributed to the expansion of the scope of dangerous terrorism to a considerable extent. They believe that "if the law does not really prohibit it, we can use it". Taking the air as an example, the external emission of VOC (volatile organic matter) is determined by the local government according to the size of the company. However, we found that whether the company has a health and safety department within the half of Figure 2 (1) 5 (b)] minus 1 and plus 1 respectively, its internal emissions are the same. In France, this mostly depends on the quality of government officials or the relationship between the government and the company, because most investigators are government officials, who often impose their subjective judgments on factories

however, in a short period of time, at least before October 31, 2007, the general trend of environmental protection policies is the European 1993/13/ce decree, which indicates that emissions are allowed when emissions are less than 66%. With regard to water, the situation seems to be worse, partly because of the additional costs of water treatment. This has led to a huge inequality between water treatment and equipment costs in countries requiring zero emissions, because zero emissions means that the water discharged from factories must be free of any chemical pollution. For those countries that pay attention to the principle of emission control, although their factories are located in industrial zones equipped with collection, recycling and other treatment measures, the additional cost of such treatment equipment also exists

when it comes to waste, the opinions of authorities in all places are the same, that is, let us classify, isolate, select, and evaluate if possible. This is why the Esma Committee (the body responsible for this issue) is called HSEP (health, safety, environmental issues)

therefore, we should control the air quality inside the factory, and carefully divide the harmful substances according to how to ensure the results of heat dissipation, moisture insulation, shock absorption and stable substances (divided into light and micro substances, direct cancer or harm to unborn infants, etc.). Similarly, water and all fine particles that may cause harm to humans or animals also need to be subdivided. With regard to waste, it is said that some harmless components separated may become harmful substances and even cause explosions in some cases when combined with other substances again

in the face of such a dilemma, people's first reaction is "it's only related to printing, not digital printing." Is digital printing pollution-free

solvent based inks for digital printing are also a major concern. Previously, digital printing inks contained 50% or more solvents, which were highly volatile, and their working environment was usually narrow and poorly ventilated offices and studios, which were very dangerous. Although the use of some harmful substances in ink and paint has been prohibited for a long time, the solvent problem is still an important topic, which was discussed at fespa in 2002. At that time, authoritative experts in Spain also asked about the precise nature of the solvent

this also explains why digital printing advocates the concept of ecological solvent. However, it needs to be clarified that the word "ecological solvent" is ambiguous. Manufacturers in Japan, the United States, North Korea, China and Israel have tried to add some components to the ink to crystallize the solvent. These inks use low volatile, high concentration solvents. However, despite their efforts to keep all indicators within the scope permitted by law, it is also very dangerous when people are exposed to these products for a long time. What is more serious is that they will rarely provide reasonable safety warning data sheets

from the perspective of cost, this concentrated ecological solvent needs to use improved materials, which virtually increases the production cost. In order to protect their own interests, material manufacturers will question the necessity of using improved materials, and buyers of ecological solvent ink will fall into the wrong consciousness of relaxing vigilance for safety. The wrong description of "ecological solvent" leads people to believe that this kind of ink will not harm the environment and pose a threat to employees. This is far from the truth. They are also harmful

however, the laws and regulations of all countries will soon be replaced by the European uniform standards act, and any EU member who fails to comply will be punished. At the same time, this act adopts most strict national laws as its basis. This brings us to the whole reach topic. People often talk about it, but they don't know what it contains

reach is a typical original organization of the European community, and no one can predict its influence. No matter what reach does, it will certainly increase the production costs of manufacturers and affect the prices of many basic consumer goods in our daily life

what is r e a C H

reach is a combination of the initials of Registration Evaluation Authorization and limitation of chemicals. It will include 100000 comprehensive products and take 11 years to prepare. R e a C H strives to coordinate all existing rules for the use of chemicals and control their implementation. This may require the appointment of a neutral body to record all necessary data and expand the scope to all chemical substances. At the same time, contact and supervision with chemical manufacturers and strive to ensure that their products are non-toxic and cost-effective. In general, reach will ensure that everyone has access to all the product data collected, and most dangerous goods can be produced only under license

on the surface, this seems to be a good method, but this process is quite expensive, because it must check every product currently produced. After all these steps are completed, we have a lot less optional materials left. For manufacturers, product profits will be greatly reduced, and products without economic benefits will be discarded by manufacturers, which will even affect the confidence of suppliers in improving the overall working level of products and limit the choice of products in the future. Therefore, reach will affect the entire European chemical industry and affect all industrial fields. Some people will point out that they are bound by the decisions of some environmental experts

the worst thing is that European manufacturers will find it increasingly difficult to compete with countries that are not bound by the same regulatory procedures. With the integration of the international economy, products from other countries will enter Europe duty-free, which further exacerbates the plight of European manufacturers

at this time, the great resistance from the manufacturer also makes everything have not been formally decided. However, a new institution, the European Council ofpainting, ink and colors, has been established to specifically discuss this issue. This is an international association similar to fespa, representing hundreds of named companies from 17 different European countries. Of course, so far, one thing is certain, that is, more than 85% of chemical products are produced within the scope of EC decree. We hope that next year EC can adopt the opinions of reach and make a final decision. Let's wait and see

at the same time, don't forget that in printing, the glazing of glass and ceramics has become more critical, because it must contain solvents and VOC volatilization, as well as the combination of pigments and other chemical components, all of which will produce pollutants. Generally, although pigments are extracted from soil and other natural ingredients, they are not pollution-free in themselves. They generally contain heavy metals that are considered to be the source of pollution, but what is left if we do not use pigments? No color, no paint, no printing, no art

what are we going to do next

the simplest solution is to clearly and correctly identify all products, which is also the simplest thing we can do. After all, we know whether the products we use are potentially dangerous, whether corrosive, flammable, explosive or often damaging to the environment. In fact, Esma has asked its members to provide complete information, so users can take necessary precautions to avoid possible hazards

another suggestion is that we can adopt the delaying tactics, make plans for further amendments first, and adopt special cases for some small companies that cannot immediately change manufacturing and waste management

another effective measure is to require polluters to be responsible for controlling the pollution they cause

gpsf (French Silk Printing Association) has a comprehensive booklet entitled "how to print without pollution", which is a guide manual for protecting the production environment corresponding to recent regulations. For air and water treatment, the existing treatment technology may cost a lot of money, almost reaching the critical point that people can afford, and many small companies can't do it. Therefore, this booklet gives symbolic guidance to the majority of enterprises

inside the factory, we use a collector to clean the air, that is, cover a shell on the printing machine; Outside the plant, VOC is recovered by oxidation or biochemical treatment filtration (such as biochemical filtration, filter and biological flushing), concentration or absorption (activated carbon)

generally, we can treat water by electrocoagulation, coagulation, microfiltration, activated carbon absorption and other methods. In some processes, oxidation, cold stock and photographic chemical solution can also be used, but so far this is still in the research stage, and the treatment cost is very high. The really effective solution is to change or modify the basic process

for air, UV technology has been advocated in the industry for 25 years, which is suitable for both plate printing and digital printing. From printing materials to industrial applications, including vacuum forming and conductive inks (the only exception is some painting on glass and ceramics), this technology can be used in all classic printing fields. In addition, it also has great economic and management advantages. Although UV ink does escape some free groups in the drying process, its solvent is not volatile or rarely volatile, and UV technology is still considered to be pollution-free

for water, the pollution associated with the plate printing cleaning and recycling process or to a lesser extent is the residue after exposure. These residues include residual film, emulsifier and diazonium salt. In fact, these are biodegradable, and in most cases, only a simple filtration system is required

will solvent based inks disappear completely

in a longer period of time and considering the different use situations among countries, it can be said that yes,

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