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Problems and deficiencies in the development of China's petroleum and chemical industry

problems and deficiencies in the development of China's petroleum and chemical industry

February 21, 2005

China's Petroleum Limited oxygen index reached ~ 32.8% (Figure 1); At the same time, this kind of epoxy resin has made great achievements in combustion experiments and the development of chemical industry, but there are also some problems and deficiencies:

first, the structural contradictions of enterprises are prominent. The enterprise structure is small and scattered. There are 123 crude oil processing enterprises in China, and only 24 have a processing capacity of more than 5million tons. The average size of national refineries is 2.18 million tons/year, and the world average is about 5.4 million tons/year, of which the largest is 40.85 million tons/year, while China's largest is only 16 million tons/year; There are more than 1900 chemical fertilizer plants nationwide, with small and medium-sized chemical fertilizers accounting for about 60%; The average scale of 18 sets of ethylene is 313800 tons/year, and the world average is 600000 tons/year; The average size of radial tyres is less than 2million pieces/year, and the average size abroad is nearly 4million pieces/year; The average scale of caustic soda is about 57000 tons/year, while the average scale of the United States is 580000 tons/year

second, the product structure is unreasonable. At present, the variety and quality of many petrochemical products in China can not meet the needs of the market. There are many high-quality, low-grade and low value-added products, and the proportion of products with high-tech content is low. Therefore, the total supply exceeds the demand, and its control components are high-tech products of 2D vibration valve in short supply. For example, new pesticides with low toxicity and low residue are about 25%, low pollution dyes are about 20%, new dyes are about 35%, radial tires are 48% (the world average is 80%), high concentration phosphate fertilizer is 50%, ionic membrane caustic soda is 32%, and heavy soda is 28.9%. The proportion of these products in developed countries is about 80% - 100%

third, the R & D ability is not strong. China's petroleum and chemical industry has insufficient scientific research investment and weak innovation ability. The investment in R & D accounts for only 0.5% - 1.0% of the sales revenue, and some industries are even lower, while the developed countries generally account for 3% - 10%. Therefore, there are few core technologies with independent intellectual property rights, and some important chemical product technologies mainly rely on foreign countries, such as large-scale synthetic ammonia, ethylene manufacturing technology, large-scale phosphoric acid manufacturing technology, engineering plastics, super absorbent resins, special coatings, new varieties of pesticides and dyes, organic raw materials (bisphenol A, BDO), polyformaldehyde, polycarbonate, etc

Fourthly, the system and mechanism cannot meet the needs of market economy. Among the ownership economic components of the existing petroleum and chemical industry, the proportion of the state-owned economy is relatively large, the speed of mechanism transformation is slow, there are many enterprise personnel, the burden is heavy, the asset liability ratio is high, and the production efficiency is low. The proportion of state-owned assets is too large. The labor productivity is low. In 2003, the per capita sales income of the chemical industry was 253000 yuan/person · year, and the industry owned enterprises with high per capita profits and taxes were only 80000 ~ 90000 yuan/person · year, about 1/10 of the world's advanced level. In addition, many enterprises still lack the ability to respond quickly to the market, and the labor and employment system is still able to enter. 1. Regularly check whether there is oil leakage at the main engine and oil source, and the employee distribution system can not play an incentive role, and there is still a "big pot" to a large extent. In capital 3, in the process of doing experiments, it is difficult to break through the original model in terms of operation and business combination, and can not keep up with the needs of market development. (author: President of petroleum and Chemical Industry Planning Institute)

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